Publicado 16/02/2019 23:11:08CET
The clinical development program for avelumab, known as JAVELIN, involves at least 30 clinical programs and more than 9,000 patients evaluated across more than 15 different tumor types. In addition to RCC, these tumor types include breast, gastric/gastro-esophageal junction, and head and neck cancers, Merkel cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and urothelial carcinoma.
About BAVENCIO(® )(avelumab)
BAVENCIO is a human anti-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) antibody. BAVENCIO has been shown in preclinical models to engage both the adaptive and innate immune functions. By blocking the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 receptors, BAVENCIO has been shown to release the suppression of the T cell-mediated antitumor immune response in preclinical models.(7-9) BAVENCIO has also been shown to induce NK cell-mediated direct tumor cell lysis via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro.(9-11) In November 2014, Merck and Pfizer announced a strategic alliance to co-develop and co-commercialize BAVENCIO.
Approved Indications in the US
In the US, the FDA granted accelerated approval for BAVENCIO for the treatment of (i) adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (mMCC) and (ii) patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) who have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy, or have disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy. These indications are approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for these indications may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.
BAVENCIO is currently approved for patients with MCC in more than 45 countries globally, with the majority of these approvals in a broad indication that is not limited to a specific line of treatment.
Important Safety Information from the US FDA-Approved Label
The warnings and precautions for BAVENCIO include immune-mediated adverse reactions (such as pneumonitis, hepatitis, colitis, endocrinopathies, nephritis and renal dysfunction, and other adverse reactions), infusion-related reactions and embryo-fetal toxicity.
Common adverse reactions (reported in at least 20% of patients) in patients treated with BAVENCIO for mMCC and patients with locally advanced or mUC include fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, diarrhea, nausea, infusion-related reaction, peripheral edema, decreased appetite/hypophagia, urinary tract infection and rash.
About INLYTA(®) (axitinib)
INLYTA is an oral therapy that is designed to inhibit tyrosine kinases, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors 1, 2 and 3; these receptors can influence tumor growth, vascular angiogenesis and progression of cancer (the spread of tumors). In the US, INLYTA is approved for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after failure of one prior systemic therapy. INLYTA is also approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for use in the EU in adult patients with advanced RCC after failure of prior treatment with sunitinib or a cytokine.
INLYTA Important Safety Information from the US FDA-Approved Label
In the study of advanced RCC after failure of one prior systemic therapy, the warnings and precautions for INLYTA include hypertension, including hypertensive crisis, arterial and venous thrombotic events, hemorrhagic events, cardiac failure, gastrointestinal perforation and fistula, hypothyroidism, wound healing complications, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS), proteinuria, liver enzyme elevation, hepatic impairment, and fetal harm during pregnancy.
Common adverse events (reported in at least 20% of patients) in patients receiving INLYTA were diarrhea, hypertension, fatigue, decreased appetite, nausea, dysphonia, hand-foot syndrome, weight decreased, vomiting, asthenia, and constipation.
For more information and full Prescribing Information, visit www.INLYTA.com [https://www.inlyta.com/].
About SUTENT(®) (sunitinib malate)
Sunitinib is a small molecule that inhibits multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, some of which are implicated in tumor growth, pathologic angiogenesis, and metastatic progression of cancer. Sunitinib was evaluated for its inhibitory activity against a variety of kinases (>80 kinases) and was identified as an inhibitor of platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR and PDGFR ), vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3), stem cell factor receptor (KIT), Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3), colony stimulating factor receptor Type 1 (CSF-1R), and the glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor receptor (RET).
SUTENT is indicated in the US for the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) after disease progression on or intolerance to imatinib mesylate; the treatment of advanced RCC; the adjuvant treatment of adult patients at high risk of recurrent RCC following nephrectomy; and the treatment of progressive, well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) in patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic disease.
SUTENT Important Safety Information from the US FDA-Approved Label
Boxed Warning/Hepatotoxicity has been observed in clinical trials and postmarketing experience. Hepatotoxicity may be severe, and in some cases fatal. Monitor hepatic function and interrupt, reduce, or discontinue dosing as recommended. Fatal liver failure has been observed. Monitor liver function tests before initiation of treatment, during each cycle of treatment, and as clinically indicated. Interrupt SUTENT for Grade 3 or 4 drug-related hepatic adverse reactions and discontinue if there is no resolution. Do not restart SUTENT if patients subsequently experience severe changes in liver function tests or have signs and symptoms of liver failure.
Additional warnings and precautions for SUTENT include cardiovascular events, QT prolongation and Torsades de Pointes, hypertension, hemorrhagic events, tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), proteinuria, dermatologic toxicities including erythema multiforme, Sevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, necrotizing fasciitis, thyroid dysfunction, hypoglycemia, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), impaired wound healing, embryo fetal toxicity and impaired reproductive potential, potential harm during lactation, venous thromboembolic events, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS), and pancreatic function.
Common adverse reactions (reported in at least 20% of patients) in patients receiving SUTENT for treatment-naïve metastatic RCC were diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, anorexia, altered taste, mucositis/stomatitis, pain in extremity/limb discomfort, vomiting, bleeding, all sites, hypertension, dyspepsia, arthralgia, abdominal pain, rash, hand-foot syndrome, back pain, cough, asthenia, dyspnea, skin discoloration/yellow skin, peripheral edema, headache, constipation, dry skin, fever, and hair color changes.
Common adverse reactions (reported in at least 20% of patients) in patients receiving SUTENT for adjuvant treatment of RCC, GIST or pNET - and more commonly than in patients given placebo - were mucositis/stomatitis/oral syndromes, diarrhea, fatigue, asthenia, hand-foot syndrome, hypertension, altered taste, nausea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, hypothyroidism/TSH increased, rash, hair color changes, anorexia, skin discoloration, constipation, vomiting, bleeding events, epistaxis, and dysgeusia.
For more information and full Prescribing Information, visit www.SUTENT.com [http://www.sutent.com/].
About Merck-Pfizer Alliance